Every vessel is a one of a kind creation utilizing direct metal techniques in copper and steel. Raising is a term referring to creating 3-D forms such as seamless vessels. The ancient art form takes a flat sheet of metal, often copper, hand hammering it over stakes until it becomes a bowl shape. This is a very time consuming process alternating the use of heat to anneal or soften the metal and repeatedly hammering to produce the desired shape. Patinas are used to create color and contrasts to the natural colors of the metals. This process creates a unique quality to the piece.